Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Pierre SD

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Stephen Young Stout, MD
(605) 224-5901
711 E Wells Ave Ste 200
Pierre, SD
Specialties
Orthopedics
Gender
Male
Education
Medical School: Univ Of Sd Sch Of Med, Vermillion Sd, 57069
Graduation Year: 1980

Data Provided By:
Thomas E Roth, DDS
(605) 224-6205
711 E Wells Ave Ste 210
Pierre, SD
Specialties
Orthodontics/Dentofacial Orthopedics

Data Provided By:
Stephen Y Stout
(604) 224-7070
100 Mac Ln
Pierre, SD
Specialty
Orthopedic Surgery

Data Provided By:
Dr.Michael Vener
(605) 882-2630
401 9th Avenue Northwest
Watertown, SD
Gender
M
Education
Medical School: Univ Of Mn Med Sch-Minneapolis
Year of Graduation: 1989
Speciality
Orthopedic Surgeon
General Information
Accepting New Patients: Yes
RateMD Rating
1.0, out of 5 based on 1, reviews.

Data Provided By:
Dale Robert Anderson, MD
(605) 341-1122
101 E Minnesota St Ste 210
Rapid City, SD
Specialties
Orthopedics, Hand Surgery
Gender
Male
Education
Medical School: Loma Linda Univ Sch Of Med, Loma Linda Ca 92350
Graduation Year: 1971
Hospital
Hospital: Sioux Valley Hospital, Sioux Falls, Sd; Rapid City Regional Hospital, Rapid City, Sd
Group Practice: Anderson Orthopaedics

Data Provided By:
Gonzalo H Sanchez
(605) 224-7070
100 Mac Lane
Pierre, SD
Specialty
Orthopedic Surgery

Data Provided By:
Gerald Rexford Herrin, MD
(605) 224-2010
640 E Sioux Ave
Pierre, SD
Specialties
Orthopedics
Gender
Male
Education
Medical School: Or Hlth Sci Univ Sch Of Med, Portland Or 97201
Graduation Year: 1963

Data Provided By:
Gonzalo Henry Sanchez, MD
(605) 222-0075
772 E Dakota Ave
Pierre, SD
Specialties
Orthopedics
Gender
Male
Education
Medical School: Univ Of Ks Sch Of Med, Kansas City Ks 66103
Graduation Year: 1998

Data Provided By:
Timothy Melvin Zoellner, MD
(605) 331-5890
810 E 23rd St
Sioux Falls, SD
Specialties
Orthopedics
Gender
Male
Education
Medical School: Med Coll Of Wi, Milwaukee Wi 53226
Graduation Year: 1982
Hospital
Hospital: Mc Kennan Hospital, Sioux Falls, Sd
Group Practice: Orthopedic & Sports Medicine

Data Provided By:
Dr.Michael Kadrmas
(605) 341-1414
7220 S Highway 16
Rapid City, SD
Gender
M
Speciality
Orthopedic Surgeon
General Information
Accepting New Patients: Yes
RateMD Rating
5.0, out of 5 based on 3, reviews.

Data Provided By:
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Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

A Patient's Guide to Pain Management: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

Introduction

Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is divided into two categories, CRPS I and CRPS II. CRPS I (caused by an injury to tissues) was previously called Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD), Sudeck’s atrophy, and shoulder-hand syndrome. CRPS II (caused by damage to a nerve) was previously called causalgia. The symptoms and treatments of the two types are almost identical. For the purpose of this document we will refer to them jointly as CRPS. Early recognition of the signs and symptoms of CRPS as well as early treatment are usually effective in preventing it from becoming a chronic condition. When the condition becomes chronic, significant irreversible disability can occur.

This guide will help you understand

  • what parts of the body are involved
  • what causes this condition
  • how doctors diagnose the condition
  • what treatment options are available

Anatomy

What parts of the body are involved?

The sympathetic nervous system consists of ganglia, nerves and plexuses (a braid of nerves) that supply the involuntary muscles. Most of the nerves are motor, but some are sensory.

Sympathetic nerves are responsible for conducting sensation signals to the spinal cord from the body. They also regulate blood vessels and sweat glands. Sympathetic ganglia are collections of these nerves near the spinal cord. They contain approximately 20,000-30,000 nerve cell bodies.

CRPS is felt to occur as the result of stimulation of sensory nerve fibers. Those regions of the body rich in nerve endings such as the fingers, hands, wrist, and ankles are most commonly affected. When a nerve is excited, its endings release chemicals. These chemicals cause vasodilation (opening of the blood vessels). This allows fluid to leak from the blood vessel into the surrounding tissue. The result is inflammation or swelling leading to more stimulation of the sensory nerve fibers. This lowers the pain threshold. This entire process is called neurogenic inflammation. This explains the swelling, redness, and warmth of the skin in the involved area initially. It also explains the increased sensitivity to pain.

As the symptoms go untreated, the affected area can become cool, have hair loss, and have brittle or cracked nails. Muscle atrophy or shrinkage, loss of bone density (calcium), contracture, swelling, and limited range of motion in joints can also occur in the affected limb. These are in part caused by decreased blood supply to the affected tissues as the condition progresses.

Causes

What causes this condition?

CRPS commonly occurs after an injury as minor as having blood drawn, or a sprained ankle. Other times, it may be the result of a more significant injury such as surgery, a fracture, immobilization with casting or splinting, or the result of a stroke.

Risk factors for developing CRPS include immobilization of the affected limb with ...

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